Fabric Finishing Process

fabric finishing process
Finishing process are catergorized as wet and dry finishes. They are also reffered as chemical and mechanical finish respectively. According to the degree of performance it can be classified into 4 types

Main Fabric Finishing Techniques

It is the process of burning off protuding fibres from fabric to give a smooth surface. All most all cotton and spun rayon fabrics are singed. Singeing burns of all fuzz and fibre ends leaving and uneven surface before the fabrics passes through other finishing processes or printing operation. There are 2 methods for singeing. It is done by gas technique (infrared) or by plate technique (the fabric is passed over a heated plate)
Fabrics that have been napped (nap is the raised surface on certain kinds of cloth such as velvet) are usually sheared to give an attractive smooth surface. Shearing levels all surface irregularity carved by the plucking action in the napping process. Shearing is done by a machine with rotating cylinder having blades (its action resembles that of a lawn mover). After shearing the fabric is automatically brushed in order to remove the sheared ends of the yarns.
It is a cleaning process in which the fabric is treated with hot alkali that removes cotton waxes, coloured impurities and other non-cellulosic substance (such as leaf and seed coat). Therefore it is a process to make fibre or fabric hydrophilic (water absorbant) to facilitate dyeing and printing process.
If a cloth is to be finished while or is to be given surface ornamentation all natural colors must be removed by bleaching. This is also necessary if discoloration or stain have occured during the previous manufacturing process. Bleaching can be done in the yarn stage as well as in the fabric stage. Bleaching agent - Diluted hydrogen peroxide and diluted sodium hypochlorite.
Merecrising is an improtant process for cotton fabric. It is also used in the finishing linen. Merecrising causes the flat twisted ribbon like cotton fibre into a round shape. The fabric becomes much more lustrous than the original fibre and its strength is increased by 20 percent.
Sanforizing or Shrinking
Mechanical shrinking is done to minimize shrinking while laundering.
Teflon finish
Teflon fabric protection provides superior soil and stain resistance for fabrics suitable for apparels for children.
Wrinkle Free / Wash & Wear / Crease resist finish
Magnisium chloride is used as cross linking agent.
Anti-microbial treatment
Controls the growth of odour causing bacteria.
The process of removing the sizing agent.
Natural sizing agents - Starch, Glue, Gelatinete
Synthetic sizing agents - Polyacrylatis, Polyvinyl, alchohols etc) applied to the warp threads to facilitate weaving is desizing.

Fabric Dyeing

Dyeing is a process of colouring fibres, yarns, fabric or garments. Dyeing is of two types Dyeing of textiles is possible at any stage of textile process (fibre to fabric) by different methods.
Stock or Top Dyeing
It refers to the dyeing of fibres before it is spun into yarns. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibres into large vats containing dye solutions which are then heated to proper temperature. The term Top refers to fibre of wool from which short fibres have been removed.
Yarn Dyeing
Dyeing of yarns before they have been woven or knitted into fabrics. The main reason of yarn dyeing is for production of multicolored designs such as Plaids, Stripes and Checks. Skein dyeing, package dyeing and beam dyeing are main methods of yarn dyeing.
Piece Dyeing
The dyeing of cloth after it had been woven or knitted is known as piece dyeing. It is mose common method of dyeing used. The various methods used for this type of dyeing includes Beck Dyeing, Jig Dyeing, Pad Dyeing and Jet Dyeing.
Garment Dyeing
Garment dyeing is the dyeing of completed garments. The types of apparel that can be dyed are mostly nontailored such as sweaters, hosiery, denim jackets etc. Tailored items such as suits or dresses cannot be dyed as garments because the difference in shrinkage of the various components and linings mishape the art etc.
Fabric Dyeing

Fabric Printing Techniques

Printing is the process of applying color to the surface of the fabric in definite pattern or design. It is a form of decoration to the fabric.
fabric printing techniques

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