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Fabric Finishing Process

Fabric Finishing Process
Finishing process are catergorized as wet and dry finishes. They are also reffered as chemical and mechanical finish respectively. According to the degree of performance it can be classified into 4 types
  • Permanant finish
  • Durable finish
  • Semi durable finish
  • Temporary finish

Main Fabric Finishing Techniques

1.  Singeing
It is the process of burning off protuding fibres from fabric to give a smooth surface. All mostall cotton and spun rayon fabrics are singed. Singeing burns of all fuzz and fibre ends leavingand uneven surface before the fabrics passes through other finishing processes or printing operation.There are 2 methods for singeing. It is done by gas technique (infrared) or by plate technique (the fabric is passed over a heated plate)
2.  Shearing
Fabrics that have been napped (nap is the raised surface on certain kinds of cloth such as velvet) are usually sheared to give an attractive smooth surface. Shearing levels all surface irregularity carvedby the plucking action in the napping process. Shearing is done by a machine with rotating cylinderhaving blades (its action resembles that of a lawn mover). After shearing the fabric is automatically brushed in order to remove the sheared ends of the yarns.
3.  Scouring
It is a cleaning process in which the fabric is treated with hot alkali that removescotton waxes, coloured impurities and other non-cellulosic substance (such as leafand seed coat). Therefore it is a process to make fibre or fabric hydrophilic(water absorbant) to facilitate dyeing and printing process.
4.  Bleaching
If a cloth is to be finished while or is to be given surface ornamentation all natural colors must be removed by bleaching. This is also necessary if discoloration or stain have occured during the previous manufacturing process. Bleaching can be donein the yarn stage as well as in the fabric stage.Bleaching agent - Diluted hydrogen peroxide and diluted sodium hypochlorite.
5.  Merecrising
Merecrising is an improtant process for cotton fabric. It is also used in the finishinglinen. Merecrising causes the flat twisted ribbon like cotton fibre into a round shape.The fabric becomes much more lustrous than the original fibre and its strength is increasedby 20 percent.
6.  Sanforizing or Shrinking
Mechanical shrinking is done to minimize shrinking while laundering.
7.  Teflon finish
Teflon fabric protection provides superior soil and stain resistance for fabrics suitable for apparels for children.
8.  Wrinkle Free / Wash & Wear / Crease resist finish
Magnisium chloride is used as cross linking agent.
9.  Anti-microbial treatment
Controls the growth of odour causing bacteria.
10.  Desizing
The process of removing the sizing agent.
Natural sizing agents - Starch, Glue, Gelatinete
Synthetic sizing agents - Polyacrylatis, Polyvinyl, alchohols etc) applied to the warp threads to facilitate weaving is desizing.
Before and After Singeing Before and After Singeing
Pre-treatment and Scouring Pre-treatment and Scouring
Bleaching Machine Bleaching Machine
Merecrising Merecrising

Different Fabric Dyeing Techniques

Dyeing is a process of colouring fibres, yarns, fabric or garments. Dyeing is of two typesDyeing of textiles is possible at any stage of textile process (fibre to fabric) by different methods.
Stock or Top Dyeing
It refers to the dyeing of fibres before it is spun into yarns. It is done by putting loose, unspunfibres into large vats containing dye solutions which are then heated to proper temperature.The term Top refers to fibre of wool from which short fibres have been removed.
Yarn Dyeing
Dyeing of yarns before they have been woven or knitted into fabrics. The main reason of yarndyeing is for production of multicolored designs such as Plaids, Stripes and Checks. Skein dyeing, package dyeing and beam dyeing are main methods of yarn dyeing.
Piece Dyeing
The dyeing of cloth after it had been woven or knitted is known as piece dyeing. It is mose common method of dyeing used. The various methods used for this type of dyeing includesBeck Dyeing, Jig Dyeing, Pad Dyeing and Jet Dyeing.
Garment Dyeing
Garment dyeing is the dyeing of completed garments. The types of apparel that can be dyed are mostlynontailored such as sweaters, hosiery, denim jackets etc. Tailored items such as suits or dressescannot be dyed as garments because the difference in shrinkage of the various components and linings mishape the art etc.
Different Stages of Dyeing Different Stages of Dyeing
Yarn Dyeing Yarn Dyeing
Garment Dyeing Garment Dyeing

Different Fabric Printing Techniques

Printing is the process of applying color to the surface of the fabric in definite pattern or design.It is a form of decoration to the fabric.
Batik Batik
Tie and Dye Tie and Dye
Stencil Printing Stencil Printing
Screen Printing Screen Printing
Block Printing Block Printing
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